Author: Bruce, R.
Paper Title Page
MOPMP019 High Luminosity LHC Optics and Layout HLLHCV1.4 468
 
  • R. De Maria, R. Bruce, D. Gamba, M. Giovannozzi, F. Plassard
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The goal of the High Luminosity Project is the upgrade of the LHC to deliver an integrated luminosity of at least 250 \rm fb-1 per year in each of the two high-luminosity, general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS. This article presents the latest layout design and the corresponding optics features, which comprise optimisation of the orbit corrector and crab cavity systems, and new estimates of the performance reach thanks to the new concept of fully remote alignment. In addition, the new optics version incorporates improvements required by beam instrumentation, dump system, and collimation system, as well as low-beta solutions for the LHCb experiment.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPMP019  
About • paper received ※ 17 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPMP037 Updated High-Energy LHC Design 524
 
  • F. Zimmermann, D. Amorim, S. A. Antipov, S. Arsenyev, M. Benedikt, R. Bruce, M.P. Crouch, S.D. Fartoukh, M. Giovannozzi, B. Goddard, M. Hofer, J. Keintzel, R. Kersevan, V. Mertens, J. Molson, Y. Muttoni, J.A. Osborne, V. Parma, V. Raginel, S. Redaelli, T. Risselada, I. Ruehl, B. Salvant, D. Schoerling, E.N. Shaposhnikova, L.J. Tavian, E. Todesco, R. Tomás, D. Tommasini, F. Valchkova-Georgieva, V. Venturi, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • J.L. Abelleira, A. Abramov, E. Cruz Alaniz, H. Pikhartova, A. Seryi, L. van Riesen-Haupt
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • A. Apyan
    ANSL, Yerevan, Armenia
  • J. Barranco García, L. Mether, T. Pieloni, L. Rivkin, C. Tambasco
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  • F. Burkart
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • Y. Cai, Y.M. Nosochkov
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • G. Guillermo Cantón
    CINVESTAV, Mérida, Mexico
  • K. Ohmi, K. Oide, D. Zhou
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Funding: This work was supported in part by the European Commission under the HORIZON 2020 project ARIES no.730871, and by the Swiss Accelerator Research and Technology collaboration CHART.
We present updated design parameters for a future High-Energy LHC. A more realistic turnaround time has led to a revision of the target peak luminosity, as well as a choice of a larger IP beta function, and longer physics fills. Pushed parameters of the Nb3Sn superconducting cable together with a modified layout of the 16 T dipole magnets resulted in revised field errors, updated dynamic-aperture simulations, and an associated re-evaluation of injector options. Collimators in the dispersion suppressors help achieve satisfactory cleaning performance. Longitudinal beam parameters ensure beam stability throughout the cycle. Intrabeam scattering rates and Touschek lifetime appear benign.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPMP037  
About • paper received ※ 10 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB048 Collimation System Studies for the FCC-hh 669
 
  • R. Bruce, A. Abramov, A. Bertarelli, M.I. Besana, F. Carra, F. Cerutti, M. Fiascaris, G. Gobbi, A.M. Krainer, A. Lechner, A. Mereghetti, D. Mirarchi, J. Molson, M. Pasquali, S. Redaelli, D. Schulte, E. Skordis, M. Varasteh Anvar
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • A. Abramov
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • A. Faus-Golfe
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • M. Serluca
    IN2P3-LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux, France
 
  The Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) is being designed as a 100 km ring that should collide 50 TeV proton beams. At 8.3 GJ, its stored beam energy will be a factor 28 higher than what has been achieved in the Large Hadron Collider, which has the highest stored beam energy among the colliders built so far. This puts unprecedented demands on the control of beam losses and collimation, since even a tiny beam loss risks quenching superconducting magnets. We present in this article the design of the FCC-hh collimation system and study the beam cleaning through simulations of tracking, energy deposition, and thermo-mechanical response. We investigate the collimation performance for design beam loss scenarios and potential bottlenecks are highlighted.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB048  
About • paper received ※ 18 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB049 Study of Beam-Gas Interactions at the LHC for the Physics Beyond Colliders Fixed-Target Study 673
 
  • C. Boscolo Meneguolo, R. Bruce, F. Cerutti, M. Ferro-Luzzi, M. Giovannozzi, A. Mereghetti, J. Molson, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Abramov
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
 
  Among several working groups formed in the framework of Physics Beyond Colliders study, launched at CERN in September 2016, there is one investigating specific fixed-target experiment proposals. Of particular interest is the study of high-density unpolarized or polarized gas target to be installed in the LHCb detector, using storage cells to enhance the target density. This work studies the impact of the interactions of 7 TeV proton beams with such gas targets on the LHC machine in terms of particle losses.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB049  
About • paper received ※ 17 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 19 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB050 Performance of the Collimation System During the 2018 Lead Ion Run at the Large Hadron Collider 677
 
  • N. Fuster-Martínez, R. Bruce, J.M. Jowett, A. Mereghetti, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  As part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion research programme, the last month of the 2018 LHC run was dedicated to Pb ion physics. Several heavy-ion runs have been performed since the start-up of the LHC. These runs are challenging for collimation, despite lower intensities, because of the degraded cleaning observed compared to protons. This is due to the differences of the interaction mechanisms in the collimators. Ions experience fragmentation and electromagnetic dissociation that result in a substantial flux of off-rigidity particles that escape the collimation system. In this paper, the collimation system performance and the experience gained during the 2018 Pb ion run are presented. The measured performance is compared with the expectation from the Sixtrack-FLUKA coupling simulations and the agreement discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB050  
About • paper received ※ 07 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 19 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB051 Collimation System Upgrades for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and Expected Cleaning Performance in Run 3 681
 
  • A. Mereghetti, R. Bruce, N. Fuster-Martínez, D. Mirarchi, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  In the framework of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider project (HL-LHC), the LHC collimation system needs important upgrades to cope with the foreseen brighter beams. New collimation hardware will be installed in two phases, the first one during the LHC second Long Shutdown (LS2), in 2019-20, followed by a second phase starting in 2024 (LS3). This paper reviews the collimation upgrade plans for LS2, focused on a first impedance reduction of the system, through the installation of collimators based on new materials, and the improvement of collimation cleaning, achieved by adding new collimators in the cold dispersion suppressor regions. The performance of the new system in terms of cleaning inefficiency for proton and lead ion beams is presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB051  
About • paper received ※ 06 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB052 Gamma Factory at CERN: Design of a Proof-of-Principle Experiment 685
 
  • Y. Dutheil, R. Alemany-Fernández, H. Bartosik, N. Biancacci, R. Bruce, P. Czodrowski, V. Fedosseev, B. Goddard, S. Hirlaender, J.M. Jowett, R. Kersevan, M. Kowalska, M. Lamont, D. Manglunki, J. Molson, A.V. Petrenko, M. Schaumann, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • S. E. Alden, A. Bosco, S.M. Gibson, L.J. Nevay
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • A. Apyan
    ANSL, Yerevan, Armenia
  • E.G. Bessonov
    LPI, Moscow, Russia
  • A. Bosco, S.M. Gibson, L.J. Nevay
    Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • F. Castelli
    Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
  • F. Castelli, C. Curatolo, L. Serafini
    INFN-Milano, Milano, Italy
  • K. Kroeger
    FSU Jena, Jena, Germany
  • A. Martens
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • V. Petrillo
    Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
  • M. Sapinski, T. Stöhlker
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • G. Weber
    IOQ, Jena, Germany
  • Y.K. Wu
    FEL/Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
 
  The Gamma Factory (GF) initiative proposes to create novel research tools at CERN by producing, accelerating and storing highly relativistic partially stripped ion beams in the LHC rings and by exciting their atomic degrees of freedom by lasers, to produce high-energy photon beams. Their intensity would be several orders of magnitude higher than those of the presently operating light sources in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain reaching up to 400 MeV. In this energy domain, the high-intensity photon beams can be used to produce secondary beams of polarized electrons, polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions. Over the years 2017-2018 we have demonstrated that these partially stripped ion beams can be successfully produced, accelerated and stored in the CERN accelerator complex, including the LHC. The next step of the project is to build a proof of principle experiment in the SPS to validate the principal GF concepts. This contribution will present the initial conceptual design of this experiment along with its main challenge - the demonstration of the fast cooling method of partially stripped ion beams.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB052  
About • paper received ※ 19 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB055 First Partially Stripped Ions in the LHC (208Pb81+) 689
 
  • M. Schaumann, R. Alemany-Fernández, H. Bartosik, T. Bohl, R. Bruce, G.H. Hemelsoet, S. Hirlaender, J.M. Jowett, V. Kain, M.W. Krasny, J. Molson, G. Papotti, M. Solfaroli Camillocci, H. Timko, J. Wenninger
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The Gamma Factory initiative proposes to use partially stripped ion (PSI) beams as drivers of a new type of high intensity photon source. As part of the ongoing Physics Beyond Collider studies, initial beam tests with PSI beams have been executed at CERN. On 25 July 2018 lead ions with one remaining electron (208Pb81+) were injected and accelerated in the LHC for the first time. After establishing the injection and circulation of a few 208Pb81+ bunches, beam lifetimes of about 50 hours could be established at 6.5 TeV proton equivalent energy. This paper describes the setup of the beam tests and observations made.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB055  
About • paper received ※ 29 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB058 Collimation of Partially Stripped Ion Beams in the LHC 700
 
  • A. Abramov, L.J. Nevay
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • R. Bruce, N. Fuster-Martínez, A.A. Gorzawski, M.W. Krasny, J. Molson, S. Redaelli, M. Schaumann
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  In the scope of the Physics Beyond Colliders studies, the Gamma Factory initiative proposes the use of partially stripped ions as a driver of a new type, high intensity photon source in CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In 2018, the LHC accelerated and stored partially stripped 208-Pb-81+ ions for the first time. The collimation system efficiency recorded during this test was found to be prohibitively low. The worst losses were localised in the dispersion suppressor (DS) of the betatron-cleaning insertion. Analytic arguments and simulations show that the large losses are driven by the stripping of the remaining electron from the Pb nucleus by the primary collimators. The rising dispersion in the DS pushes the resulting off-rigidity, fully-stripped ions into the aperture of the superconducting magnets. In this study the measured loss maps are compared against results from simulations. Different mitigation strategies are outlined, including a dispersion suppressor (DS) collimator, crystal collimation or an orbit bump.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB058  
About • paper received ※ 10 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB059 Collimation of Heavy-Ion Beams in the HE-LHC 704
SUSPFO111   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • A. Abramov, L.J. Nevay
    JAI, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom
  • R. Bruce, M.P. Crouch, N. Fuster-Martínez, A. Mereghetti, J. Molson, S. Redaelli
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
 
  A design study for a future collider to be built in the LHC tunnel, the High-Energy Large Hadron Collider (HE-LHC), has been launched as part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study at CERN. It would provide proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 27 TeV as well as collisions of heavy ions at the equivalent magnetic rigidity. HE-LHC is being designed under the stringent constraint of using the existing tunnel and therefore the resulting lattice and optics differ in layout and phase advance from the LHC. It is necessary to evaluate the performance of the collimation system for ion beams in HE-LHC in addition to proton beams. In the case of ion beams, the fragmentation and electromagnetic dissociation that relativistic heavy ions can undergo in collimators, as well as the unprecedented energy per nucleon of the HE-LHC, requires dedicated simulations. Results from a study of collimation efficiency for the nominal lead ion (Pb-82-208) beams performed with the SixTrack-FLUKA coupling framework are presented. These include loss maps with comparison against an estimated quench limit as well as detailed considerations of loss spikes in the superconducting aperture for critical sections of the machine such as the dispersion suppressors.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB059  
About • paper received ※ 18 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEYYPLM2 The 2018 Heavy-Ion Run of the LHC 2258
 
  • J.M. Jowett, C. Bahamonde Castro, W. Bartmann, C. Bracco, R. Bruce, J. Coello, J. Dilly, S.D. Fartoukh, E. Fol, N. Fuster-Martínez, A. Garcia-Tabares, M. Hofer, E.B. Holzer, M.A. Jebramcik, J. Keintzel, A. Lechner, E.H. Maclean, L. Malina, T. Medvedeva, A. Mereghetti, T. H. B. Persson, B.Aa. Petersen, S. Redaelli, B. Salvachua, M. Schaumann, C. Schwick, M. Solfaroli, M.L. Spitznagel, H. Timko, R. Tomás, A. Wegscheider, J. Wenninger, D. Wollmann
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • D. Mirarchi
    The University of Manchester, The Photon Science Institute, Manchester, United Kingdom
 
  The fourth one-month Pb-Pb collision run brought LHC Run 2 to an end in December 2018. Following the tendency to reduce dependence on the configuration of the preceding proton run, a completely new optics cycle with the strongest ever focussing at the ALICE and LHCb experiments was designed and rapidly implemented, demonstrating the maturity of the collider’s operating modes. Beam-loss monitor thresholds were carefully adjusted to provide optimal protection from the multiple loss mechanisms in heavy-ion operation. A switch from a basic bunch-spacing of 100 ns to 75 ns was made as the beam became available from the injector chain. A new record luminosity, 6 times the original design and close to the operating value proposed for HL-LHC, provided validation of the strategy for mitigating quenches due to bound-free pair production (BFPP) at the interaction points of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Most of the beam parameters of the HL-LHC Pb-Pb upgrade were attained during this run and the integrated luminosity goals for the first 10 years of LHC operation were substantially exceeded.  
slides icon Slides WEYYPLM2 [10.884 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEYYPLM2  
About • paper received ※ 08 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEYYPLM3 First Results of the Compensation of the Beam-Beam Effect with DC Wires in the LHC 2262
 
  • G. Sterbini, D. Amorim, H. Bartosik, A. Bertarelli, R. Bruce, X. Buffat, F. Carra, L.R. Carver, G. Cattenoz, E. Effinger, S.D. Fartoukh, N. Fuster-Martínez, M. Gąsior, M. Gonzalez-Berges, A.A. Gorzawski, G.H. Hemelsoet, M. Hostettler, G. Iadarola, O.R. Jones, N. Karastathis, S. Kostoglou, I. Lamas Garcia, T.E. Levens, L.E. Medina Medrano, D. Mirarchi, J. Olexa, S. Papadopoulou, Y. Papaphilippou, D. Pellegrini, M. Pojer, L. Ponce, A. Poyet, S. Redaelli, A. Rossi, B. Salvachua, H. Schmickler, F. Schmidt, K. Skoufaris, M. Solfaroli, R. Tomás, G. Trad, D. Valuch, C. Xu, C. Zamantzas, P. Zisopoulos
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • D. Amorim
    Grenoble-INP Phelma, Grenoble, France
  • M. Fitterer, A. Valishev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • D. Kaltchev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
  • S. Kostoglou
    National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece
  • A.E. Levichev
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • A. Poyet
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France
 
  The compensation of the long-range beam-beam interactions using DC wires is presently under study as an option for enhancing the machine performance in the frame of the High-Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC). The original idea dates back more than 15 years. After the installation of four wire prototypes in the LHC in 2018, a successful experimental campaign was performed during the last months. The experimental setup and the main results are reported in this paper.  
slides icon Slides WEYYPLM3 [6.371 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEYYPLM3  
About • paper received ※ 06 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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