Keyword: gun
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MOPGW028 Study for the Alignment of Focusing Solenoid of ARES RF Gun and Effect of Misalignment of Solenoid on Emittance of Space Charge Dominated Electron Beam solenoid, alignment, emittance, electron 147
 
  • S. Yamin, R.W. Aßmann, B. Marchetti
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  SINBAD (Short and INnovative Bunches and Accelerators at DESY) facility will host multiple experiments relating to ultra-short high brightness beams and novel experiments with ultra-high gradient. ARES (Accelerator Research Experiment at SINBAD) Linac is an S-band photo injector to produce such electron bunches at around 100 MeV. The Linac will be commissioned in stages with the first stage corresponding to gun commissioning. In this paper, we present studies about the scheme adopted for the alignment of focusing solenoid for the ARES gun. The method is bench marked using ASTRA simulations. Moreover the effect of misalignment of the solenoid on the emittance of space charge dominated scheme and its compensation is also discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPGW028  
About • paper received ※ 26 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 18 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPMP002 Linac and Damping Ring Designs for the FCC-ee linac, emittance, positron, electron 420
 
  • S. Ogur, K. Oide, Y. Papaphilippou, L. Rinolfi, F. Zimmermann
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A.M. Barnyakov, A.E. Levichev, P.V. Martyshkin, D.A. Nikiforov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
  • I. Chaikovska, R. Chehab
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • K. Furukawa, N. Iida, T. Kamitani, F. Miyahara, K. Oide
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • E.V. Ozcan
    Bogazici University, Bebek / Istanbul, Turkey
  • S.M. Polozov
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • L. Rinolfi
    ESI, Archamps, France
  • F. Yaman
    IZTECH, Izmir, Turkey
 
  We report the design of the pre-injector chain for the Future Circular e+ e Collider (FCC-ee) system. The electron beam from a low-emittance RF gun is accelerated by an S-band linac up to 6 GeV. A damping ring at 1.54 GeV is required for emittance cooling of the positron beam. The intermediate energy step from the exit of the S-band linac at 6 GeV to the 20 GeV injection energy of the top-up booster can be provided by the modified Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), serving as a pre-booster ring (PBR). An alternative option to reach 20 GeV energy would be to extend the S-band linac with a C- or X-band linac. An overall cost optimisation will determine the choice of the final configuration. Beam loss and emittance dilution in the linac due to space charge effects, wakefields, and misalignment of accelerator components can be mitigated by RF phasing and orbit steering. Start-to-end simulations examine the beam transport through the linac up to either 6 GeV or 20 GeV. The results indicate large design margins. Simulations of the beam dynamics in the damping ring (DR) demonstrate a sufficiently large momentum acceptance. Effects of intrabeam scattering and electron cloud instability in the DR are also studied.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPMP002  
About • paper received ※ 13 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPMP009 Effect of Initial Parameters on the Super Flat Beam Generation with the Phase-Space Rotation for Linear Colliders emittance, simulation, collider, solenoid 442
 
  • M. Kuriki, R. Tamura
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
  • H. Hayano, X.J. Jin, T. Konomi, Y. Seimiya, N. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • S. Kashiwagi
    Tohoku University, Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Sendai, Japan
  • P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • J.G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • K. Sakaue
    The University of Tokyo, The School of Engineering, Tokyo, Japan
  • M. Washio
    RISE, Tokyo, Japan
 
  Funding: This work is partly supported by Japan-US Cooperative grant for scientific studies, Grant aid for scientific study by MEXT Japan (KAKENHI) Kiban B.
Linear collider is a concept to realize e+e collision beyond the limitation of the ring colliders by the synchrotron radiation. To obtain an enough luminosity, eg. 1.0·10+34 cm-2sec-1, the beam is focused down to nano-meter size with a high aspect ratio. This super flat beam is useful to improve the luminosity and to compensate the beam-beam effect, eg. Beamstrahlung. In a conventional design, the super-flat beam is produced by radiation damping in a storage ring. We propose to produce this super-flat beam with phase-space rotation techniques. We employ both Round to Flat Beam Transformation and Transverse to Longitudinal Emittance eXchange, the super flat beam can be generated by controlling the space-charge effect which spoiled the performance. We present the RFBT performance with respect to the initial conditions, i.e. beam size, initial emittance, solenoid field (strength and profile), etc.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPMP009  
About • paper received ※ 13 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPMP050 Performance of CeC PoP Accelerator electron, FEL, SRF, hadron 559
 
  • I. Pinayev, Z. Altinbas, J.C. Brutus, A.J. Curcio, A. Di Lieto, T. Hayes, R.L. Hulsart, P. Inacker, Y.C. Jing, V. Litvinenko, J. Ma, G.J. Mahler, M. Mapes, K. Mernick, K. Mihara, T.A. Miller, M.G. Minty, G. Narayan, F. Severino, K. Shih, Z. Sorrell, J.E. Tuozzolo, E. Wang, G. Wang, A. Zaltsman
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I. Petrushina
    SUNY SB, Stony Brook, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Coherent electron cooling experiment is aimed for demonstration of the proof-of-principle demonstration of reduction energy spread of a single hadron bunch circulating in RHIC. The electron beam should have the required parameters and its orbit and energy should be matched to the hadron beam. In this paper we present the achieved electron beam parameters including emittance, energy spread, and other critical indicators. The operational issues as well as future plans are also discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPMP050  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB067 High-gradient Single Cycle Terahertz Accelerating Structures GUI, acceleration, cathode, electron 731
 
  • S.P. Antipov, E. Gomez, S.V. Kuzikov
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • A.A. Vikharev
    IAP/RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
 
  Recently, gradients on the order of 1 GV/m level have been obtained in a form of single cycle (~1 ps) THz pulses produced by conversion of a high peak power laser radiation in nonlinear crystals (~1 mJ, 1 ps, up to 3% conversion efficiency). These pulses however are broadband (0.1-5 THz) and therefore a new accelerating structure type is required. For electron beam acceleration with such pulses we propose arrays of parabolic focusing micro-mirrors with common central. These novel structures could be produced by a femtosecond laser ablation system developed at Euclid Techlabs. This technology had already been tested for production of several millimeters long, multi-cell structure which has been testing with electron beam. We also propose using of structures where necessary GV/m E-fields are excited by a drive bunch travelling in the corrugated waveguide. The radiated by drive bunch sequence of short range delayed wakes are guided in this case by metallic disks and reflected back being focused exactly at time when the witness bunch arrives.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB067  
About • paper received ※ 21 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB085 First Results from Commissioning of Low Energy RHIC Electron Cooler (LEReC) electron, cavity, MMI, cathode 769
 
  • D. Kayran, Z. Altinbas, D. Bruno, M.R. Costanzo, K.A. Drees, A.V. Fedotov, W. Fischer, M. Gaowei, D.M. Gassner, X. Gu, R.L. Hulsart, P. Inacker, J.P. Jamilkowski, Y.C. Jing, J. Kewisch, C.J. Liaw, C. Liu, J. Ma, K. Mernick, T.A. Miller, M.G. Minty, L.K. Nguyen, M.C. Paniccia, I. Pinayev, V. Ptitsyn, V. Schoefer, S. Seletskiy, F. Severino, T.C. Shrey, L. Smart, K.S. Smith, A. Sukhanov, P. Thieberger, J.E. Tuozzolo, E. Wang, G. Wang, A. Zaltsman, H. Zhao, Z. Zhao
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The brand new non-magnetized bunched beam electron cooler (LEReC) [1] has been built to provide luminosity improvement for Beam Energy Scan II (BES-II) physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) BES-II [2]. The LEReC accelerator includes a photocathode DC gun, a laser system, a photocathode delivery system, magnets, beam diagnostics, a SRF booster cavity, and a set of Normal Conducting RF cavities to provide sufficient flexibility to tune the beam in the longitudinal phase space. This high-current high-power accelerator was successfully commissioned in period of March -September 2018. Beam quality suitable for cooling has been demonstrated. In this paper we discuss beam commissioning results and experience learned during commissioning.
[1] A. Fedotov et al., ’Status of bunched beam electron cooler LEReC’ in these proceedings.
[2] C.Liu et al., ’Improving luminosity of Beam Energy Scan II at RHIC’ in these proceedings.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB085  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPRB110 Simulation Study of the Emittance Measurements in Magnetized Electron Beam solenoid, emittance, cathode, electron 822
 
  • S.A.K. Wijethunga, J.R. Delayen, G.A. Krafft
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • J. F. Benesch, F.E. Hannon, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, G.G. Palacios Serrano, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, S. Zhang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177
Electron cooling of the ion beam is key to obtaining the required high luminosity of proposed electron-ion colliders. For the Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider, the expected luminosity of 1034 〖 cm〗-2 s-1 will be achieved through so-called ’magnetized electron cooling’, where the cooling process occurs inside a solenoid field, which will be part of the collider ring and facilitated using a circulator ring and Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). As an initial step, we generated magnetized electron beam using a new compact DC high voltage photogun biased at -300 kV employing an alkali-antimonide photocathode. This contribution presents the characterization of the magnetized electron beam (emittance variations with the magnetic field strength for different laser spot sizes) and a comparison to GPT simulations.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPRB110  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPTS026 Status Report of the SINBAD-ARES RF Photoinjector and LINAC Commissioning linac, electron, laser, experiment 906
 
  • E. Panofski, R.W. Aßmann, F. Burkart, U. Dorda, K. Flöttmann, M. Hüning, B. Marchetti, D. Marx, F. Mayet, P.A. Walker, S. Yamin
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  The accelerator R&D facility SINBAD (Short innovative bunches and accelerators at DESY) will drive multiple independent experiments including the acceleration of ultrashort electron bunches and the test of advanced high gradient acceleration concepts. The SINBAD-ARES (Accelerator Research Experiment at SINBAD) setup hosts a normal conducting RF photoinjector generating a low charge electron beam that is afterwards accelerated to 100 MeV by an S-band linac section. The linac as well as a magnetic chicane allow the production of ultrashort pulses with an excellent arrival-time stability. The high brightness beam has then the potential to serve as a test beam for next generation compact acceleration schemes. The setup of the SINBAD-ARES facility will proceed in stages. We report on the current status of the ARES RF gun and linac commissioning.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPTS026  
About • paper received ※ 22 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPTS095 Optimization of the Alba Linac Operation Modes linac, simulation, focusing, solenoid 1086
 
  • E. Marín, D. Lanaia, R. Muñoz Horta, F. Pérez
    ALBA-CELLS Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
 
  ALBA is a third generation synchrotron light source that consists on a linac, booster and storage ring. The linac is capable of operating in single (SBM) and multi-bunch injection mode (MBM). Since 2016 the Single Bunch Bucket Selection algorithm which runs in SBM, permits to inject on a selected bucket keeping the charge uniformity along the ring below 4\%. However when running in SBM a significantly lower transmission along the linac is observed, with respect to the one when running in MBM. Simulation efforts have been deployed in order to build up a reliable model of the ALBA linac which can reproduce the experimental measurements. In this paper we present the new simulation model that renders the experimental observations, and the new optimization procedure developed in simulations and tested in the real machine.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPTS095  
About • paper received ※ 12 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPTS099 The Development Programme of Cathodes and Electron Guns for the Hollow Electron Lenses of the High Luminosity LHC Project cathode, electron, luminosity, proton 1102
 
  • D. Perini, G. Gobbi
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • D.J. Crawford, J. Ruan, G. Stancari, L.R. Valerio
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • J. Feng, Z. Li, W. Shao, K. Zhang
    BVERI, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • W. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Yang
    Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: Research supported by the HL-LHC project
The High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) foresees the construction and installation of important new equipment to increase the performance of the LHC machine. The Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) is a promising system to control the beam halo. It improves the beam collimation system of the HL-LHC and mitigates possible equipment damage in case of failure scenarios from halo losses. The halo can store up to 30 MJ energy. The specifications for this new device are quite demanding. The source, an electron gun with an annular shaped cathode, has to deliver a current up to 5 A. This is five times higher than the current in the existing electron lenses in Fermi and Brookhaven national laboratories. This note describes the programme carried out to design and test high-perveance guns equipped with two types of high-performance scandate cathodes. The size of the final gun is now considerably smaller than the one of the first prototype, allowing a reduction of diameter and cost of the superconducting magnet system used to steer the electron beam. The tests carried out at FNAL, BVERI and BJUT demonstrated that the developed cathodes fulfil the specifications and can supply a 5 A fully Space Charge Limited (SCL) current.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPTS099  
About • paper received ※ 17 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPTS104 A Toolkit for Tracing Electron Beam Envelope at Low Energy Section of TPS Linac electron, simulation, linac, operation 1122
 
  • H.H. Chen, H.C. Chen, K.-K. Lin, Y.K. Lin
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
 
  Based on calculated Bz of solenoids installed at the TPS linac low energy section, the electron beam envelope along beam centerline has been explored in this work using the initial and boundary conditions provided in the linac specifications. Concept of magnetic flux compression is adopt to analyze the beam size variation along linac centerline. The calculated result of selected checkpoints has been experimentally verified using screen monitors. In order to benefit tuning capability in routine operation, the display of beam size variation along centerline is integrated into the previously developed toolkit ’linac’. It is hope that it will provide an interactive approach for linac tune-up process and would be helpful to its routine operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPTS104  
About • paper received ※ 23 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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MOPTS119 APS LINAC Interleaving Operation linac, operation, storage-ring, booster 1161
 
  • Y. Sun, K. Belcher, J.C. Dooling, A. Goel, A.L. Hillman, R.T. Keane, A.F. Pietryla, H. Shang, A. Zholents
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02- 06CH11357.
Three s-band RF guns are installed at the front end of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac: two thermionic cathode guns (RG2 and RG1), and one Photo-Cathode Gun (PCG). During normal operations, RG2 provides electron beams for the storage ring to generate x-rays for APS users. The PCG generates high brightness electron beams that can be accelerated through the APS linac and transported into the Linac Extension Area (LEA) for advanced accelerator technology and beam physics experiments. The alternating acceleration of the RG2 and PCG beam in the linac is possible, as most of the time, RG2 beam is only needed for ~20 seconds every two minutes. This mode of interleaving operation of RG2 and PCG beams through the APS linac requires some modifications/additions to several systems of the linac, including RF, magnets, controls and Access Control Interlock System etc. In this paper we report our interleaving design and present the commissioning results of the two beam interleaving operation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-MOPTS119  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUXXPLM3 First Operation of a Hybrid e-Gun at the Schlesinger Center for Compact Accelerators in Ariel University laser, electron, solenoid, klystron 1171
 
  • A. N. Nause, A. Fukasawa, J.B. Rosenzweig, R.J. Roussel
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  • A. Friedman
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel
  • B. Spataro
    INFN/LNF, Frascati, Italy
 
  Funding: Israel Ministry of Defence Israel Ministry of Science
A novel hybrid photo injector was designed and partially tested at the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Laboratory. It was later commissioned at Ariel University in Israel as an on-going collaboration between the two universities. This unique, new generation design provides a radically simpler approach to RF feeding of a gun/buncher system, leading to a much shorter beam via velocity bunching owed to an attached traveling wave section of the photo-injector. This design results in better performance in beam parameters, providing a high quality electron beam, with energy of 6 MeV, emittance of app 3 μm, and a 150 fs pulse duration at up to 1 nC per pulse. The Hybrid gun is driven by a SLAC XK5 Klystron as the high power RF source, and third harmonic of a fs level IR Laser amplifier (266 nm) to drive the Cathode. The unique e-gun will produce an electron pulse for a THz FEL, which will operate at the super-radiance regime, and therefore requires extraordinary beam properties. This paper briefly describes the gun and presents initial operational results from the gun and its sub-systems.
 
slides icon Slides TUXXPLM3 [9.526 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUXXPLM3  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPMP031 Research on Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics of Diamond-like Carbon Thin Films electron, vacuum, experiment, laser 1306
 
  • Y.X. Zhang, X.Q. Ge, W. Li, J.Q. Shao, S. Wang, Y.G. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Wei, B. Zhang, B.L. Zhu
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
 
  In modern particle accelerators, the build-up of electron cloud is a main limiting factor for the achievement of high-quality beam. Among the techniques to mitigate it, coating the internal walls of the beam pipes with a thin film which has a low secondary electron yield (SEY) is considered to be one of the most effective means. From several earlier studies, it was found that diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are potential coatings. This paper is mainly about the research on secondary electron emission characteristics of DLC thin films. The secondary electron emission (SEE) tests were done at temperature of 298 K and vacuum pressure of 2×10-9 Torr. Here, we obtained the characteristics of the SEE from DLC film coatings with different thickness under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. The maximum secondary electron yield (SEY), δmax, of the DLC thin films under different primary electron doses were also obtained, respectively.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPMP031  
About • paper received ※ 26 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPGW008 PERLE: A High Power Energy Recovery Facility cavity, linac, cryomodule, injection 1396
 
  • W. Kaabi, I. Chaikovska, A. Stocchi, C. Vallerand
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • D. Angal-Kalinin, J.W. McKenzie, B.L. Militsyn, P.H. Williams
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • S.A. Bogacz, A. Hutton, F. Marhauser, R.A. Rimmer, C. Tennant
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • S. Bousson, D. Longuevergne, G. Olivier, G. Olry
    IPN, Orsay, France
  • O.S. Brüning, R. Calaga, L. Dassa, F. Gerigk, E. Jensen, P.A. Thonet
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • B. Hounsell, M. Klein, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • E.B. Levichev, Yu.A. Pupkov
    BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
 
  PERLE is a proposed high power Energy Recovery Linac, designed on multi-turn configuration, based on SRF technology, to be hosted at Orsay-France in a col-laborative effort between local laboratories: LAL and IPNO, together with an international collaboration involv-ing today: CERN, JLAB, STFC ASTeC Daresbury, Liverpool University and BINP Novosibirsk. PERLE will be a unique leading edge facility designed to push advances in accelerator technology, to provide intense and highly flexible test beams for component development. In its final configuration, PERLE provides a 500 MeV elec-tron beam using high current (20 mA) acceleration during three passes through 801.6 MHz cavities. This presenta-tion outlines the technological choices, the lattice design and the main component descriptions.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPGW008  
About • paper received ※ 19 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPGW029 The Injection System and the Injector Complex for PETRA IV injection, emittance, kicker, booster 1465
 
  • J.X. Zhang, I.V. Agapov, H. Ehrlichmann, X.N. Gavaldà, M. Hüning, J. Keil, F. Obier, M. Schmitz, R. Wanzenberg
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  PETRA IV project is to upgrade PETRA III to a synchrotron radiation source with an ultra-low emittance. Due to the small dynamic aperture of the PETRA IV storage ring, a horizontal on-axis injection is prepared. In this paper, the preliminary study of the injection scheme is described. To meet the requirements of the on-axis injection, a plan of a new injector complex, including the Gun, the LINAC and the accumulator is shown in this paper. Several options are discussed in this paper, too.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPGW029  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPGW036 1 mA Stable Energy Recovery Beam Operation with Small Beam Emittance operation, emittance, cavity, linac 1482
 
  • T. Obina, D.A. Arakawa, M. Egi, T. Furuya, K. Haga, K. Harada, T. Honda, Y. Honda, T. Honma, E. Kako, R. Kato, H. Kawata, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kojima, T. Konomi, H. Matsumura, T. Miura, T. Miyajima, S. Nagahashi, H. Nakai, N. Nakamura, K. Nakanishi, K.N. Nigorikawa, T. Nogami, F. Qiu, H. Sagehashi, H. Sakai, S. Sakanaka, M. Shimada, M. Tadano, T. Takahashi, R. Takai, O. A. Tanaka, Y. Tanimoto, T. Uchiyama, K. Umemori, M. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • R. Hajima, R. Nagai, M. Sawamura
    QST, Tokai, Japan
  • N. Nishimori
    National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Sayo-cho, Japan
 
  A compact energy-recovery linac (cERL) have been operating since 2013 at KEK to develop critical components for ERL facility. Details of design, construction and the result of initial commissioning are already reported*. This paper will describe the details of further improvements and researches to achieve higher averaged beam current of 1 mA with continuous-wave (CW) beam pattern. At first, to keep the small beam emittance produced by 500 kV DC-photocathode gun, tuning of low-energy beam transport is essential. Also, we found some components degrades the beam quality, i.e., a non-metallic mirror which disturbed the beam orbit. Other important aspects are the measurement and mitigation of the beam losses. Combination of beam collimator and tuning of the beam optics can improve the beam halo enough to operate with 1 mA stably. The cERL has been operated with beam energy at 20 MeV or 17.5 MeV and with beam rep-rate of 1300 MHz or 162.5 MHz depending on the purpose of experiments. In each operation, the efficiency of the energy recovery was confirmed to be better than 99.9 %.
* S. Sakanaka, et.al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 877 (2017)197, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2017.08.051
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPGW036  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPGW051 Generation of Two Terahertz Radiation Pulses with Continuously Tunable Frequency and Time Delay electron, radiation, laser, cathode 1518
 
  • W.X. Wang, Z.G. He, S.M. Jiang, H.R. Zhang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
 
  We propose to generate two narrow band terahertz pulses radiated from two temporally modulated relativistic electron beams, which are generated in a photo-injector. The temporal profile of the drive laser is modulated by means of the paired chirped pulses beating technique, leading to the generation of two pre-bunched electron beams. Coherent transient radiation (CTR) is considered as the mechanism for terahertz radiation generation. The frequencies of the two terahertz pulses can be independently tuned by adjusting the paired beating frequencies, and the interval between the two terahertz pulses can be adjusted by the optical delay line.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPGW051  
About • paper received ※ 30 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPRB010 FIRST DESIGN STUDIES OF A NC CW RF GUN FOR EUROPEAN XFEL cathode, cavity, simulation, FEL 1698
 
  • S. Shu, Y. Chen, S. Lal, H.J. Qian, H. Shaker, F. Stephan
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
 
  After the successful commissioning of the European XFEL in pulsed mode, continuous wave (CW) mode operation of European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) is under considerations for future upgrade. DESY is push-ing R&D on CW electron sources. A fully superconducting CW gun is under experimental development at DESY in Hamburg, and a normal conducting (NC) CW gun is under physics design at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) as a backup option. A 217 MHz NC CW gun is developed from the LBNL 187 MHz VHF gun, with enhancement on both cathode gradient and gun voltage to further improve beam brightness. This paper presents the cavity RF design, multipacting (MP) simula-tions and beam dynamics studies.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPRB010  
About • paper received ※ 17 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPRB019 Collimator Performance Study at the European XFEL FEL, alignment, collimation, operation 1717
 
  • S. Liu, F. Brinker, W. Decking, L. Fröhlich, N. Golubeva, T. Wamsat, J. Wilgen
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Beam halo collimation is of great importance for the high repetition rate operation at the European XFEL and for the future CW machines. At the European XFEL several different types of collimators are installed at different locations of the beam line, which include the gun collimators, the bunch compressor collimators, and the main and supplementary collimators in the collimation section. Beam halo measurements have been performed using the wire scanners downstream of the main linac, which show that large part of beam halo is collimated by the gun collimator. Remaining losses in the collimation section are mainly due to misalignment. Alignment using orbit bumps in the collimation section is performed and presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPRB019  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPRB086 Four X-ray Pulses within 10 ns at LCLS laser, experiment, FEL, electron 1859
 
  • F.-J. Decker, W.S. Colocho, S.H. Glenzer, A.A. Lutman, A. Miahnahri, D.F. Ratner, J.C. Sheppard, S. Vetter
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  The X-Ray FEL at SLAC or LCLS delivers typically one bunch at the time. Different schemes of two bunches have been developed: Two bucket, Twin bunch, split undulator, and fresh slice. Here we discuss a four bunch or even eight bunch setup, separated by 2 RF buckets or 0.7 ns. . The demand comes from MEC (Matter in Extreme Conditions) experiments, where high-power laser beams with Joule-class energies create impulsive pressure waves compressing materials on time scales of the order of ns. Eight snapshots for a single experiment will allow measuring the compression history, structural phase transitions into new high-pressure material states, and have the potential to resolve the transition kinetics time scales.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPRB086  
About • paper received ※ 30 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPRB097 Recent Progress on the Design of Normal Conducting APEX-II VHF CW Electron Gun cavity, electron, cathode, brightness 1891
 
  • D. Li, H.Q. Feng, D. Filippetto, M.J. Johnson, A.R. Lambert, T.H. Luo, C.E. Mitchell, J. Qiang, F. Sannibale, J.W. Staples, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • H.Q. Feng
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: Director of Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231
We report recent progress on the design of a normal conducting CW electron gun, APEX-II (Advanced Photo-injector EXperiment-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. APEX-II is an upgrade of the successful APEX gun and the LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source-II) injector, aiming at applications for Free electron laser (FEL) such as LCLS-II High Energy upgrade, UED (Ultrafast Electron Diffraction) and UEM (Ultrafast Electron Microscopy). The APEX-II adopted a two-cell cavity design with resonant frequency of 162.5 MHz. The APEX-II gun is targeting to achieve exceeding 30 MV/m of launch gradient at the cathode and output energy above 1.5 MeV with transverse emittance of 0.1 um at 100 pC. Advanced MOGA optimization technique has been used for both the RF cavity design and extensive beam dynamics studies using APEX-like and LCLS-II like injector layout. Detailed RF designs, beam dynamics studies, preliminary engineering design and FEA analysis will be presented, with cavity features that were demonstrated to be crucial in the operation of the APEX gun.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPRB097  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS013 Characterization of an Electron Gun Test Setup Based on Multipacting cavity, electron, cathode, multipactoring 1961
 
  • C. Henkel, W. Hillert, V. Miltchev
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • K. Flöttmann
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  A multipacting electron gun (MEG) is a micro-pulse electron source, based on secondary electron emission in a resonant microwave cavity structure, for the generation of low emittance electron bunches in continuous wave operation. Based on numerical simulations, an experimental test setup for low-energy electron beams at 3 GHz has been established. In this contribution we show a detailed description and characterization of the RF test stand, supported by first results on charge collection measurements of the output current with respect to important operational parameters like power transmission and modifiable mechanical dimensions in the assembly of the experiment. This is a milestone in the development of a MEG setup for higher energetic electron beams and subsequent investigation of essential beam characteristics like emittance and energy distribution for the optimization with regard to best possible beam quality and future fields of application.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS013  
About • paper received ※ 30 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS015 Design Steps Towards an Electron Source for Ultrafast Electron Diffraction at DELTA electron, laser, cavity, space-charge 1968
 
  • D. Krieg, S. Khan
    DELTA, Dortmund, Germany
  • T.J. Albert, K. Sokolowski-Tinten
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany
 
  Funding: MERCUR Pr-2017-0002
Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a pump-probe technique to explore the structural dynamics of matter, combining sub-angstrom De-Broglie wavelength of electrons with femtosecond time resolution. UED experiments require ultrashort laser pulses to pump a sample, electron bunches with small emittance and ultrashort length to analyze the state of the sample and excellent control of the delay between them. Electrons accelerated to a few MeV in a photocathode gun offer significant advantages compared to keV electrons from electrostatic electron sources regarding emittance, bunch length and, due to the reduction of space charge effects, bunch charge. Furthermore, thicker samples and hence a wider range of possible materials are enabled by the longer mean free path of MeV electrons. In this paper, design steps towards a university-based UED facility with ultrashort and low-emittance MeV electron bunches are presented, including the transverse and longitudinal focusing schemes, which minimize space charge effects and nonlinearities.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS015  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS024 Design of a Full C-Band Injector for Ultra-High Brightness Electron Beam emittance, cathode, klystron, brightness 1979
 
  • D. Alesini, F. Cardelli, G. Castorina, M. Croia, M. Diomede, M. Ferrario, A. Gallo, A. Giribono, B. Spataro, C. Vaccarezza, A. Vannozzi
    INFN/LNF, Frascati (Roma), Italy
 
  High gradient rf photo-injectors have been a key development to enable several applications of high quality electron beams. They allow the generation of beams with very high peak current and low transverse emittance, satisfying the tight demands for free-electron lasers, energy recovery linacs, Compton/Thomson sources and high-energy linear colliders. In the paper we present the design of a new full C-band RF photo-injector recently developed in the framework of the XLS-Compact Light design study and of the EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB proposal. It allows to reach extremely good beam performances in terms of beam emittance (at the level of few hundreds nm), energy spread and peak current. The photo-injector is based on a very high gradient (>200 MV/m) ultra-fast (RF pulses <200 ns) C-band RF gun, followed by two C band TW structures. Different types of couplers for the 1.6 cell RF gun have been considered and also a new compact low pulsed heating coupler working on the TM020 mode on the full cell has been proposed. In the paper we report the design criteria of the gun, the powering system, and the results of the beam dynamics simulations. We also discuss the case of 1 kHz repetition rate.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS024  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS026 Negative Electron Affinity GaAs Cathode Activation With CsKTe Thin Film cathode, electron, photon, vacuum 1986
 
  • M. Kuriki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • K. Masaki
    HU/AdSM, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
 
  Funding: This work is partly supported by Japan-US Cooperative grant for scientific studies, Grant aid for scientific study by MEXT Japan (KAKENHI).
Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) GaAs cathode is an unique device which can generate a highly polarized electron beam with circularly polarized light. The NEA surface is conventionally made by Cs and \rm O/NF3 adsorption on the cleaned p-doped GaAs crystal, but the robustness of the cathode is very limited, so that the electron emission is easily lost by residual gas adsorption, ion back-bombardment, etc. To improve the cathode robustness, NEA activation with a stable thin-film on GaAs surface according to Hetero junction hypothesis has been proposed by the author. An experiment of the NEA activation with CsKTe thin film was carried out at Hiroshima University and a significant electron emission with 1.43 eV photon was observed which strongly suggested NEA activation. The cathode showed 16 to 20 times improvement of lifetime comparing to GaAs activated with Cs and O.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS026  
About • paper received ※ 26 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS047 Improvement of 6D Brightness by a 1.4-cell Photocathode RF Gun for MeV Ultrafast Electron Diffraction emittance, electron, cathode, brightness 2033
 
  • Y. Song
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,, Hubei, People’s Republic of China
  • K. Fan, C.-Y. Tsai, Y.T. Yang
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
  • J. Yang
    ISIR, Osaka, Japan
 
  Recent research indicates that ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy (UED/M) have unprecedented potential in probing ultrafast dynamic processes, especially in organic and biological materials. However, reaching the required brightness while maintaining high spatiotemporal resolution requires new design of electron source. In order to produce ultrashort electron beam with extreme high brightness, a 1.4-cell RF gun is being developed to reach higher acceleration gradient near the photocathode and thus suppress the space charge effect in the low energy region. Simulation of the 1.4-cell RF photocathode gun shows considerable improvement in bunch length, emittance and energy spread, which all lead to better temporal and spatial resolution comparing to traditional 1.6-cell RF photocathode gun. The results demonstrate the feasibility of sub-ps temporal resolution with normalized emittance less than 0.1 πmm·mrad while maintaining 1 pC electron pulse.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS047  
About • paper received ※ 24 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS052 Conceptual Design of a High-Performance Injector Based on Rf-Gated Gridded Thermionic Gun for Thz Fel electron, linac, cathode, bunching 2046
 
  • P. Yang, H.M. Chen, T. Hu, J.J. Li, Y. Lu
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
  • G.Y. Feng, S.C. Zhang
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
 
  Free-Electron Laser (FEL) has higher requirements on electron beam properties, for example, low transverse emittance, small energy spread, short bunch length and high peak current. Taking compactness and economy into account, we aim to design a high-performance linear accelerator based on a RF-gated gridded thermionic electron gun, which will be used as the injector of the oscillator-type THz FEL facility at Huazhong University of Science and Technology of China. The RF-gated grid will be modulated with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic microwave of the LINAC frequency, which will be very helpful to get high electron capture efficiency and short bunch length. Concerning velocity bunching effect in the LINAC, electron bunch with good symmetry of current profile and bunch length less than 10 ps can be obtained at the exit of the injector. In this paper, design and beam dynamics simulation for the high-performance injector are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS052  
About • paper received ※ 26 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS053 Design of a 217 MHz VHF Gun at Tsinghua University cathode, electron, cavity, simulation 2050
 
  • L.M. Zheng, H. Chen, Y. C. Du, W.-H. Huang, R.K. Li, Z.Z. Li, C.-X. Tang
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • B. Gao
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  A 217 MHz VHF gun operating in CW mode is designing at Tsinghua University. The cathode gradient is designed to be 30 MV/m to accelerate the electron bunches up to 878 keV. The cavity profile is optimized in CST to minimize the input power, peak surface electric field, and peak wall power density. The multipacting analysis and the thermal analysis are also presented in this paper. Further gun shape optimization and mechanical design are ongoing.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS053  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 18 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS054 1st+2nd Harmonic Photocathode Bimodal Gun R&D emittance, cathode, electron, cavity 2054
 
  • L. Wang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • W. Fang, Z.T. Zhao
    SSRF, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • J.L. Hirshfield
    Yale University, Physics Department, New Haven, CT, USA
  • J.L. Hirshfield, S.V. Shchelkunov
    Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • Y. Jiang, S.V. Shchelkunov
    Yale University, Beam Physics Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
  • L. Wang
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: U.S. Dept. of Energy
A novel Bimodal Electron Gun is designed to apply microwaves at two harmonically-related frequency in a 0.6 cell RF gun to increase the RF breakdown threshold and enhance the beam quality. This stratagem is intended to allow the RF gun structure to support a high accelera-tion gradient as well as to manipulate the emittance evolution in the half cell. By selecting a proper ampli-tude ratio and phase relationship between the first and second harmonic RF field components in the gun cavity, the superposition of the harmonic field components can provide a flat-top like RF profile to omitting the RF emittance component in the gun, while increase the RF breakdown threshold. The recent status of the Bimodal Electron Gun R&D is presented, including the designs of the novel two frequency RF structure and the simulation of the beam dynamic.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS054  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS061 The Pre-Injector and Photocathode Gun Design for the MAX IV SXL cathode, emittance, linac, laser 2064
 
  • J. Andersson, F. Curbis, L. Isaksson, M. Kotur, D. Kumbaro, F. Lindau, E. Mansten, S. Thorin, S. Werin
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
 
  The design of the pre-injector, including the new gun, for the SXL project is being finalised for the desired modes of operation, 100 pC and 10 pC with short bunches. The photocathode gun is currently being manufactured and experiments in the MAX IV guntest facility are under preparation to verify the design. In this paper we present the design of the gun and the pre-injector and show some results from simulations using MOGA indicating an emittance below 0.3 mm mrad.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS061  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS066 Re-optimisation of the ALICE Gun Upgrade Design for the 500-pC Bunch Charge Requirements of PERLE cathode, electron, operation, laser 2071
 
  • B. Hounsell, M. Klein, C.P. Welsch
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • B. Hounsell, B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes, C.P. Welsch
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • B. Hounsell, W. Kaabi
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • B.L. Militsyn, T.C.Q. Noakes
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  The injector for PERLE, a planned ERL test facility, must be capable of delivering 500 pC bunches at a repetition rate of 40.1 MHz to provide a beam with 20 mA average current with a projected rms emittance of less than 6 mm mrad. This must be achieved at two different operational voltages 350 kV and 220 kV for unpolarised and polarised operation respectively. The PERLE injector will be based on an upgrade of a DC photocathode electron gun operated previously at ALICE ERL at Daresbury. The upgrade will add a load lock system for photocathode interchange. This paper presents the results of a re-optimisation of the electrode system as ALICE operated with a bunch charge of around 80 pC while PERLE needs a bunch charge of 500 pC. This re-optimisation was done using the many-objective genetic algorithm NSGAIII to minimise both the slice emittance and transverse beam size for both required operational voltages.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS066  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS069 A Plasmonic Niobium Photocathode for SRF Gun Applications cathode, laser, cavity, photon 2079
 
  • F.E. Hannon
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • G. Andonian, L.H. Harris
    RadiaBeam, Marina del Rey, California, USA
 
  The typical quantum efficiency of niobium is of the order 10-4, whilst also requiring UV lasers for emission. This paper presents the results of a plasmonic niobium surface that operates with IR laser via multiphoton emission.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS069  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS070 Systematic Benchmarking of a Planar (N)UNCD Field Emission Cathode cathode, experiment, electron, ECR 2083
 
  • J.H. Shao, M.E. Conde, W. Liu, J.G. Power, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  • S.V. Baryshev, M.S. Schneider
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  • G. Chen
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • K. Kovi
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • L.K. Spentzouris
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA
 
  Planar nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond, (N)UNCD, is a unique and attractive field emission source because of the capability to generate high charge beam, the simplicity of production without shaped emitters, and the ease of handling with moderate vacuum requirement. In the presented study using an L-band normal conducting single-cell rf gun, a (N)UNCD cathode has been conditioned to 42 MV/m with a well-controlled manner and reached a maximum charge of 15 nC and an average emission current of 6~mA during a 2.5 us emission period. The systematic study of emission properties during the rf conditioning process illustrates the tunability of (N)UNCD in a wide range of surface gradients. This research demonstrates the versatility of (N)UNCD cathode which could enable multiple designs of field emission rf injector for industrial and scientific applications.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS070  
About • paper received ※ 20 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS076 RF Design of APEX2 Cavities cavity, cathode, electron, brightness 2094
 
  • T.H. Luo, H.Q. Feng, D. Filippetto, M.J. Johnson, A.R. Lambert, D. Li, C.E. Mitchell, F. Sannibale, J.W. Staples, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • H.Q. Feng
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: Director of Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DEAC02-05CH11231
APEX2 is a proposed high repetition rate, high brightness electron source based on CW normal conducting RF cavities, aiming to further extend the brightness performance for FEL and UED/UEM beyond APEX. APEX2 consists of two cavities, one gun cavity for generating photo-electrons and one following cavity for beam energy boosting. In this paper, we present the RF design of the APEX2 cavities. The design has considered both beam dynamics requirements and engineering feasibility. A novel geometry optimization method with Genetic Algorithm has been implemented in the design procedure.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS076  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS077 Design of a High Gradient THz-Driven Electron Gun electron, acceleration, experiment, FEL 2098
 
  • S.M. Lewis, V.A. Dolgashev, A.A. Haase, E.A. Nanni, M. A. K. Othman, A.V. Sy, S.G. Tantawi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • D. Kim, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. This work was also supported by NSF grants PHY-1734015.
We present the design of a high-gradient electron gun. The goal of this gun is to generate relativistic electrons using GV/m accelerating fields. The initial design is a standing-wave field-emission gun operating in the pi-mode with a cavity frequency of 110.08 GHz. A pulsed 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator will be used to drive the structure with power coupled in through a TM01 circular waveguide mode. The gun is machined in two halves which are bonded. This prototype will be used to characterize the electron beam and study RF breakdown at 110 GHz.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS077  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS079 Overcoming Multipacting Barriers in SRF Photoinjectors cavity, electron, cathode, SRF 2105
 
  • I. Petrushina
    SUNY SB, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • V. Litvinenko, G. Narayan, I. Pinayev, F. Severino, K.S. Smith
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
 
  Superconducting RF (SRF) photoinjectors are considered to be a potential breakthrough in the area of high brightness electron sources. However, there is always the very important question of the compatibility of SRF cavities and high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes. A deposition of active elements from high QE photocathodes on the surface of a cavity makes it more vulnerable to multipacting (MP) and could affect the operation of an SRF gun. On the other side, MP can significantly reduce the lifetime of a photocathode. It is well known in the SRF community that a strong coupling, high forward power and sufficient cleanliness of cavity walls are the key components to overcome a low-level MP zone. In this paper we present a theoretical model of passing a MP barrier which could help estimate the desirable conditions for successful operation of an SRF gun. We demonstrate our results for the 113 MHz SRF photo-injector for Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) alongside with the experimental observations and 3D simulations of the MP discharge in the cavity. The results of the theoretical model and simulations show good agreement with the experimental results, and demonstrate that, if approached carefully, MP zones can be easily passed without any harm to the photocathode.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS079  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS080 Beam Dynamics Studies of an APEX2-Based Photoinjector solenoid, emittance, cathode, focusing 2109
 
  • C.E. Mitchell, H.Q. Feng, D. Filippetto, M.J. Johnson, A.R. Lambert, D. Li, T.H. Luo, F. Sannibale, J.W. Staples, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  APEX2 is a proposed normal conducting radio-frequency (RF) electron gun operating in the very high frequency (VHF) range in continuous wave (CW) mode, designed to drive applications that require both high beam brightness and high repetition rate, such as free electron lasers (such as LCLS-II-HE), ultra-fast electron diffraction, and microscopy. The gun consists of a two-cell RF cavity operating at 162.5 MHz with a cathode field of 34 MV/m, together with an embedded focusing solenoid. We study the beam dynamics in an APEX-II-based photoinjector (up to ~20 MeV), targeting a transverse 95% beam emittance of 0.1 um at 12.5 A peak current for the case of 100 pC charge for FEL applications. The high cathode field leads to enhanced beam brightness, while the increased gun exit energy of ~1.5 MeV reduces the effects of space charge, and possibly eliminates the need for an RF buncher. The embedded solenoid is designed to control the transverse beam size while minimizing emittance growth due to geometric aberrations. As a result, the transverse beam performance targets are achieved, and ongoing work will further optimize longitudinal beam quality for downstream FEL transport.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS080  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS085 Design Study of 3.6-cell C-band Photocathode Electron Gun emittance, simulation, FEL, cathode 2121
 
  • W. Fang, Z.T. Zhao
    SSRF, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Wang
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • L. Wang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  A C-band photocathode injector composed of a 3.6-cell C-band photocathode RF gun and two 1.8-meter C-band accelerating structures is proposed. The injector is a low emittance electron source for Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and other compact light sources. The RF structure of the cavities is designed with 2D SUPERFISH simulation. The Beam dynamic study in ASTRA helps rectify the 2D RF simulation. To feed the cavities, a design of extra coaxial coupler with RF gun structure is presented. With compact focusing solenoids, for 0.25nC bunch charge, the final energy can reach 6.9 MeV energy and the 95% emittance can be as low as 0.23 mm mrad (95%). All the details of RF design and beam dynamics studies are presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS085  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 18 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS088 A Normal Conducting RF Gun as an Electron Source for JLEIC Cooling emittance, electron, cathode, solenoid 2127
 
  • F.E. Hannon, R.A. Rimmer
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  The baseline design for a magnetized injector for the bunched-beam electron cooler ring, as part of the Jeffer-son Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) uses a DC photo-cathode electron gun as the source. A challenging aspect of this concept is transporting a 3.2nC electron bunch at low energy and preserving the angular momentum. An RF gun source has been investigated to gauge the potential advantages of high gradient on the photocathode and higher exit energy. The design is presented and compared with the baseline results.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS088  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS090 Experimental Results of Dense Array Diamond Field Emitters in RF Gun cathode, experiment, solenoid, wakefield 2134
 
  • K.E. Nichols, H.L. Andrews, D. Kim, E.I. Simakov
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • S.P. Antipov
    Euclid Beamlabs LLC, Bolingbrook, USA
  • G. Chen
    IIT, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • M.E. Conde, D.S. Doran, G. Ha, W. Liu, J.F. Power, J.H. Shao, C. Whiteford, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  We present experimental emission results from arrays of diamond field emitter tips operating in an RF gun at the Argonne Cathode Test-stand. Results from various arrays will be presented with different spacing between array elements. Very high charge densities were produced at various field gradients. The maximum field gradient for a particular geometry was discovered and break-down effects will be presented. Cathode lifetime was preliminarily studied. Further experiments are being planned and work on the cathode design optimization to produce higher quality beams will be discussed.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS090  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS093 Magnetized Gridded Thermionic Electron Source electron, cathode, emittance, simulation 2140
 
  • M.S. Stefani
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • C.M. Gulliford, V.O. Kostroun, C.E. Mayes, K.W. Smolenski
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • F.E. Hannon, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This manuscript has been authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The study of magnetized electron beam has become a high priority for its use in ion beam cooling as part of Electron Ion Colliders and the potential of easily forming flat beams for various applications. The demand for high average current for effective ion beam cooling has caused consideration of using bunched magnetized electron beam produced by a gridded thermionic electron gun. This paper presents the design of a potential electron source for JCIEC first measurements characterizing the beam properties of a magnetized thermionic gun.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS093  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS101 Bi-Alkali Antimonide Photocathodes for LEReC DC Gun cathode, electron, vacuum, laser 2154
 
  • E. Wang, A.V. Fedotov, M. Gaowei, D. Kayran, D. Lehn, C.J. Liaw, T. Rao, J.E. Tuozzolo, J. Walsh
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Low Energy RHIC electron cooling (LEReC) is a bunched electron cooler at RHIC. The Bi-alkali photocathodes are chosen as electron source due to its long lifetime and high QE at visible wavelength. Because the DC gun needs to produce 24/7 beams over several months, cathode production system and multiple cathodes transferring systems are designed, commissioned and in operation. In this report, we will describe our photocathodes production and discuss the cathode’s performance from cathode growth system to the DC gun.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS101  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS102 New Activation Techniques for Higher Charge Lifetime from GaAs Photocathodes cathode, electron, laser, site 2157
 
  • O.H. Rahman, M. Gaowei, W. Liu, E. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • J.P. Biswas
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
 
  GaAs is the choice of photocathode material for polarized electron sources. The well established method of activating GaAs for beam extraction is to use Cs and Oxygen to create a ’Negative Electron Affinity’(NEA) layer. However, this layer is highly sensitive to vacuum and gets damaged due to ion back bombardment in DC guns. In this work, we explore activation methods that used Tellurium in conjunction with the usual Cs and Oxygen. We report our method to activate GaAs and show charge lifetime results for our activation method. Our results show that the use of Te could potentially help with longer charge lifetimes from GaAs cathodes in DC guns.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS102  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 19 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS103 The Progress of High Current High Bunch Charge Polarized Electron HVDC Gun cathode, electron, vacuum, high-voltage 2160
 
  • E. Wang, I. Ben-Zvi, R.F. Lambiase, W. Liu, O.H. Rahman, J. Skaritka, F.J. Willeke
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • I. Ben-Zvi
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The high current and high bunch charge polarized electron source is essential for cost reduction of eRHIC. It aims to deliver electron beam with 10 mA average current and 5.3 nC bunch charge. We analyzed the mechanism of cathode degradation and proposed using a large strain superlattice GaAs photocathode in a high voltage DC gun to increase the charge lifetime above kilo Coulomb. The gun has been designed and fabricated and expected to start commissioning by the mid of this year. In this paper, we will present the modeling of ion back bombardment and cathode degrading. We proposed an anode offset scheme to increase cathode lifetime. Also, we will describe the details of gun design and the strategies to demonstrate high current high charge polarized electron beam from this source.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS103  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS105 High Current High Charge Magnetized and Bunched Electron Beam from a DC Photogun for JLEIC Cooler cathode, laser, electron, emittance 2167
 
  • S. Zhang, P.A. Adderley, J. F. Benesch, D.B. Bullard, J.M. Grames, J. Guo, F.E. Hannon, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Kazimi, G.A. Krafft, M.A. Mamun, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, M.G. Tiefenback, Y.W. Wang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • J.R. Delayen, G.A. Krafft, Y.W. Wang, S.A.K. Wijethunga
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: This project was supported by the U.S. DOE Basic Energy Sciences under contract No. DE-AC05-060R23177. Additional support comes from Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.
A high current, high charge magnetized electron beamline that has been under development for fast and efficient cooling of ion beams for the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC). In this paper, we present the latest progress over the past year that include the generation of picosecond magnetized beam bunches at average currents up to 28 mA with exceptionally long photocathode lifetime, and the demonstrations of magnetized beam with high bunch charge up to 700 pC at 10s of kHz repetition rates. Detailed studies on a stable drive laser system, long lifetime photocathode, beam magnetization effect, beam diagnostics, and a comparison between experiment and simulations will also be reported. These accomplishes marked an important step towards the essential feasibility for the JLEIC cooler design using magnetized beams.
(To be inserted)
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS105  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS106 First Commissioning of LCLS-II CW Injector Source cavity, operation, electron, vacuum 2171
 
  • F. Zhou, C. Adolphsen, A.L. Benwell, G.W. Brown, W.S. Colocho, Y. Ding, M.P. Dunning, K. Grouev, B.T. Jacobson, X. Liu, T.J. Maxwell, J.F. Schmerge, T.J. Smith, T. Vecchione, F.Y. Wang, C.M. Zimmer
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • G. Huang, F. Sannibale
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: The work is supported by DOE under grant No. DE-AC02-76SF00515
The LCLS-II injector source includes a 186MHz CW rf-gun, a 1.3 GHz CW rf-buncher, a loadlock system for photocathode change, two main solenoids, and a few essential diagnostics. The electron beam is designed to operate at a high repetition rate, up to 1-MHz. Since summer of 2018 we started LCLS-II injector source commissioning immediately after the major installation was completed. Initial commissioning showed the rf-gun was severely contaminated with hydrocarbons and very limited power <600W could be fed into the gun cavity. After a few significant processes, we eventually removed the hydrocarbons and successfully delivered desired rf power of 80 kW to the gun. This paper reports first com-missioning results including gun bakeout and vacuum processing, CW RF-gun and buncher operation with nom-inal power, and measurements of rf stability and dark current.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS106  
About • paper received ※ 10 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS111 Study on Improving Durability of Cs-Te Photocathode for an RF-gun cathode, electron, vacuum, brightness 2182
 
  • T. Tamba, J. Miyamatsu, K. Sakaue, M. Washio
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
 
  At Waseda University, we have been studying for high quality electron beam generation using 1.6 cell Cs-Te photocathode rf-gun. We use photocathode as the electron source, which can generate high- quality electron beam such as low emittance, and short bunch. The performance of photocathode is evaluated mainly in terms of quantum efficiency (Q.E.) and lifetime. Cs-Te photocathode used in the rf-gun is known for high Q.E. about 10% with UV light and relatively longer lifetime among semiconductor photocathodes. Since it is a hard environment for photocathode inside the gun, it is necessary to replace the photocathode every several months. In other words, in order to achieve long-term operation of rf-gun, it is necessary to find highly durable photocathode recipe. It has been reported that the Cs-Te photocathode by co-evaporation can produce a photocathode having a longer lifetime as compared with the sequential evaporation. Moreover, we have done studies to improve lifetime and durability of Cs-Te photocathode by coating the cathode surface with CsBr thin film. In this conference, we report the evaluation results of Cs-Te photocathode by co-evaporation, CsBr coating and future prospects.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS111  
About • paper received ※ 12 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS113 Microwave Thermionic Electron Gun for Synchrotron Light Sources cathode, electron, cavity, coupling 2189
 
  • S.V. Kutsaev, R.B. Agustsson, R.D. Berry, D. Chao, O. Chimalpopoca, A.Yu. Smirnov, K.V. Taletski, A. Verma
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • M. Borland, A. Nassiri, Y. Sun, G.J. Waldschmidt, A. Zholents
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, under contracts DE-SC0015191 and DE- AC02-06CH11357.
Thermionic RF guns are the source of electrons used in many practical applications, such as drivers for synchrotron light sources, preferred for their compactness and efficiency. RadiaBeam Technologies has developed a new thermionic RF gun for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, which would offer substantial improvements in reliable operations with a robust interface between the thermionic cathode and the cavity, as well as better RF performance, compared to existing models. This improvement became possible by incorporating new pi-mode electromagnetic design, robust cavity back plate design, and a cooling system that will allow stable operation for up to 1 A of beam current and 100 Hz rep rate at 1.5 μs RF pulse length, and 70 MV/m peak on-axis field in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and provide the test results of the new gun.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS113  
About • paper received ※ 30 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS116 Adjustment and Improvement of 100 MeV/100 kW Electron Linear Accelerator Parameters for the NSC KIPT SCA Neutron Source electron, neutron, operation, MMI 2200
 
  • P. Gladkikh, V.P. Androsov, O. Bezditko, O.V. Bykhun, V.V. Gevtsev, A.N. Gordienko, A. Gvozd, V.E. Ivashchenko, D.A. Kapliy, I.I. Karhaukhov, I.M. Karnaukhov, V.P. Lyashchenko, M. Moisieienko, A. Mytsykov, A.V. Reuzayev, A.B. Shevtsov, D.V. Tarasov, V.I. Trotsenko, A.Y. Zelinsky
    NSC/KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine
 
  The NSC KIPT SCA Neutron Source uses 100 MeV/ 100 kW electron linear accelerator as a driver for the generation of the initial neutrons. The electron linear accelerator was designed and manufactured by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of China. At present, the accelerator was assembled at NSC KIPT, all the components were tested, and the first beam commissioning results are obtained. The pilot operation of the accelerator was started in 2018. The progress in the accelerator system operations and electron beam performance improvement are described in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS116  
About • paper received ※ 10 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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TUPTS117 Photocathode Activities at INFN LASA cathode, operation, electron, laser 2203
 
  • D. Sertore, G. Guerini Rocco, P. Michelato, L. Monaco
    INFN/LASA, Segrate (MI), Italy
  • S.K. Mohanty
    DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen, Germany
  • C. Pagani
    Università degli Studi di Milano & INFN, Segrate, Italy
 
  We present the activity on alkali antimonide photocathodes at INFN LASA. The long term goal is to transfer to these photocathodes the know-how acquired in the successful development of cesium telluride photocathodes, nowadays used in many leading FEL facilities and accelerator complex. In this paper we present and discuss the results so far obtained on alkali antimonide films grown in our R&D system and the status of the new preparation system specifically designed for these sensitive materials.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-TUPTS117  
About • paper received ※ 16 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPMP053 Operational Results of Simultaneous Four-Beam Delivery at Jefferson Lab laser, operation, experiment, cavity 2454
 
  • R. Kazimi, A. Freyberger, J.M. Grames, J. Hansknecht, A.S. Hofler, T. E. Plawski, M. Poelker, M. F. Spata, Y.W. Wang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.
A concept for simultaneous beam delivery to all four CEBAF experimental halls from a single injector and a single main accelerator for the 12 GeV era was proposed in 2012. The original 12 GeV beam delivery plan was for a maximum of three experimental halls at a time as in the 6 GeV era. Therefore, the new concept increases the po-tential beam time for the experiments up to 33%. This change, although a major improvement in operational capabilities, required only limited modifications to the existing machine. The modifications were mainly timing and pattern changes to the beams in the injector, adding a fourth laser to the photo-cathode gun, and the addition of new RF separators to the highest pass of CEBAF. These changes are now complete and, for the first time, the full system is operating, producing four simultaneous beams through the accelerator to four different destinations. In this paper, in addition to presenting the results of the full system commissioning, we will discuss important details about the new configuration plus some of our operational challenges.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPMP053  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPGW025 High Level Software for Beam 6D Phase Space Characterization simulation, emittance, diagnostics, quadrupole 2522
 
  • V. Martinelli, D. Alesini, M. Ferrario, A. Giribono, S. Pioli, C. Vaccarezza, A. Variola
    INFN/LNF, Frascati, Italy
  • A. Bacci
    INFN-Milano, Milano, Italy
 
  Operation of modern particle accelerators require high qualitity beams and conseguently sensitive diagnostic system in order to monitories and characterize the beam during the acceleration and transport. A turn-key high level software BOLINA (Beam Orbit for Linear Accelerators) has been developed to fully characterise the 6D beam phase space in order to help operator during commissioning with an easily scalable suite for any high brightness LINAC. In this work will be presented the diagnostic toolkit is presented as designed for the ELI-NP Gamma Beam System (GBS) a radiation source based on the Compton back scattering effect able to provide tunable gamma rays in the 0.2-20 MeV range with narrow bandwidth (0.3% and a high spectral density (104 photons/sec/eV) by the Compton backscattering effect. BOLINA suite is design to be machine independent, thanks to the file exchanges with the EPICS based control system. Simulation of raw data of the ELI-NP-GBS accelerator has been used to test the capabilities of the diagnostic toolkit.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPGW025  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPGW051 Designing of a Solenoid Lens for the Application to a Compact Electron Beam Testing Bench solenoid, electron, space-charge, cathode 2591
 
  • S.Y. Lu, G. Feng, T. Hu, X.D. Tu, Y.Q. Xiong, P. Yang
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
 
  To calculate beams transport is vital for designing vacuum pipe and arranging focusing elements for each electron beam line system. Space charge effects of a low-energy, high-intensity DC electron beam focused by a solenoid lens with bucking coil are investigated theoretically in this paper. A second-order equation is numerical solved for the beam envelope focused by a short solenoid lens. In addition, a conventional transfer matrix of solenoid is not applicable to low-energy, high-intensity electron beams because the strong space charge effects are ignored. By cutting a solenoid into several segments, we have derived a micro-transfer matrix which takes space charge fields into account, and a complete beam envelope for a transport system. A simulation is used to verify our theoretical calculation results, and corresponding discussions are given in detail.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPGW051  
About • paper received ※ 13 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPGW093 Commissioning of the Prototype for a New Gas Curtain Beam Profile Monitor Using Beam Induced Fluorescence for HL-LHC electron, photon, background, experiment 2709
 
  • A. Salehilashkajani, C.P. Welsch, H.D. Zhang
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • M. Ady, N. Chritin, J. Glutting, O.R. Jones, R. Kersevan, T. Marriott-Dodington, S. Mazzoni, A. Rossi, G. Schneider, R. Veness
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • P. Forck, S. Udrea
    GSI, Darmstadt, Germany
  • C.P. Welsch, H.D. Zhang
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  Funding: This work is supported by the HLLHCUK project and the STFC Cockcroft Institute core grant No. ST/G008248/1.
A new supersonic gas-jet curtain based beam profile monitor is under development for minimally invasive simultaneous transverse profile diagnostics of proton and electron beams, at pressures compatible with LHC. The monitor makes use of a thin gas-jet curtain angled at 45 degrees with respect to the charged particle beams. The fluorescence caused by the interaction between the curtain and the beam can then be detected using a dedicated imaging system to determine its transverse profile. This contribution details design features of the monitor, discusses the gas-jet curtain formation and presents various experimental tests, including profile measurements of an electron beam using nitrogen and neon curtains. The gas-jet density was estimated by correlating it with the number of photons detected by the camera. These measurements are then compared with results obtained using a movable pressure gauge. This monitor has been commissioned in collaboration with CERN, GSI and the University of Liverpool. It serves as a first prototype of a final design that will be placed in the LHC beam line to measure the profile of the proton beam.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPGW093  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB017 Operational Experiences with X-Ray Tomography for SRF Cavity Shape and Surface Control cavity, controls, detector, simulation 2838
 
  • H.-W. Glock, J. Knobloch, A. Neumann, Y. Tamashevich
    HZB, Berlin, Germany
  • M. Böhnel, N. Reims
    Fraunhofer IIS EZRT, Fürth, Germany
  • J. Kinzinger
    X-RAY LAB, Sachsenheim, Germany
 
  X-ray tomography has established as a non-destructive three-dimensional analysis tool, commercially offered by industrial vendors. Typical applications cover shape control and failure detection (voids, cracks) deep inside of complicated bulk pieces like engine blocks, bearings, turbine blades etc. We evaluated the applicability of the process for superconducting radio frequency cavities, in particular the 1.4-cell 1.3 GHz BERLinPro electron gun cavity and the 1.5 GHz single-cell VSR cavity prototype. The former experienced severe shape modifications during its tuning process and features a complicated internal stiffening construction. Thus it is a demanding challenge to measure its actual internal cavity surface shape after the complete preparation process with a resolution, sufficiently high (better than 0.2 mm) to serve as input for meaningful comparative field simulations. First tests with a vendor’s on-site X-ray source, operating at X-ray energies up to 590 keV revealed an insufficient resolution of the inner surface, attributed to the unfavorable X-ray damping characteristics of niobium. This was overcome with the aid of an accelerator-based source (X-ray spectrum up to 9 MeV), operated by Fraunhofer IIS, Fürth, Germany. Results both show significant, while understood, shape changes and indicate partial inner surface modifications of the gun cavity. Further the data evaluation process, which was needed to provide input for field simulations, raised issues because of the data set size and complexity, which are discussed in the paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB017  
About • paper received ※ 17 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB020 Compact Ultra High-Gradient Ka-Band Accelerating Structure for Research, Medical and Industrial Applications linac, electron, accelerating-gradient, operation 2842
 
  • L. Faillace
    INFN-Milano, Milano, Italy
  • M. Behtouei
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
  • V.A. Dolgashev
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • B. Spataro, A. Variola
    INFN/LNF, Frascati, Italy
  • G. Torrisi
    INFN/LNS, Catania, Italy
 
  Technological advancements are strongly required to fulfil demands for new accelerators devices from the compact or portable devices for radiotherapy to mo-bile cargo inspections and security, biology, energy and environmental applications, and ultimately for the next generation of colliders. In the frame of the collab-oration with INFN-LNF, SLAC (USA) we are working closely on design studies, fabrication and high-power operation of Ka-band accelerating structures. In par-ticular, new manufacturing techniques for hard-copper structures are being investigated in order to determine the maximum sustainable gradients above 150 MV/m and extremely low probability of RF breakdown. In this paper, the preliminary RF and mechanical design as well as beam dynamics estimations for a Ka-Band accelerating structure at 35 GHz are presented together with discussions on practical accelerating gradients and maximum average beam current throughput.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB020  
About • paper received ※ 08 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB072 Ultra-High Gradient Short RF Pulse Gun electron, cathode, emittance, brightness 2987
 
  • S.P. Antipov, P.V. Avrakhov, S.V. Kuzikov, A. Liu
    Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • G. Ha, J.G. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
 
  Funding: DOE SBIR DE-SC0018709
High brightness beams enable novel applications like x-ray free electron lasers and ultrafast electron microscopes. High brightness beams essentially consist of a large number of electrons in a small phase space volume, i.e. a high peak current. When such beams are generated from the cathode, there is a strong space charge force, which elongates the bunch and reduces its brightness. An optimal solution is to raise the accelerating voltage in the gun. However, the maximum gradient is limited by the effects of RF breakdown. The probability of RF breakdown is reduced as the RF pulse length decreases. We present a development of an electron photoinjector operating with short RF pulse, 10 ns scale. We have designed an X-band gun including the RF design, beam quality optimization, and engineering. The gun will be fed by 10 ns, 300 MW RF pulse generated at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility for two-beam acceleration experiments. We also manufactured an aluminum prototype and measured its microwave properties, most importantly, fill time. The proposed high brightness beam source can be used as the main beam in wakefield accelerators. It will find commercial applications in ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy systems.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB072  
About • paper received ※ 21 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 24 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB080 Optimization of RF Cavities Using MOGA for ALS-U cavity, impedance, simulation, controls 3007
 
  • H.Q. Feng, K.M. Baptiste, D. Li, T.H. Luo
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • H.Q. Feng, W.-H. Huang, Z.N. Liu, C.-X. Tang
    TUB, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: Director of Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231
A multi-objective genetic algorithm-based optimiza-tion process has been applied to optimize the RF design of a 500 MHz main cavity and a 1.5 GHz Higher Harmon-ic Cavity (HHC) for the Advanced Light Source upgrade (ALS-U) in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). For the main cavity, a significant improvement, compared with the existing ALS cavity, has been achieved in cavity shunt impedance and power loss den-sity simultaneously. The field strengths and distribution of the optimized structure are analysed for further re-search. For the HHC, a cavity with low R/Q has been pre-liminary designed to mitigate the beam instability. This study also serves as an example of how a genetic algo-rithm can be used for optimizing RF cavities.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB080  
About • paper received ※ 16 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB084 Mechanical Design and Analysis of the Proposed APEX2 VHF CW Electron Gun cavity, vacuum, electron, cathode 3014
 
  • A.R. Lambert, H.Q. Feng, D. Filippetto, M.J. Johnson, D. Li, T.H. Luo, C.E. Mitchell, F. Sannibale, J.W. Staples, S.P. Virostek, R.P. Wells
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under DOE contract number DEAC02-05CH11231
Normal conducting radio-frequency (RF) guns resonating in the very high frequency (VHF) range (30-300 MHz) and operating in continuous wave (CW) mode have successfully achieved the targeted brightness and reliability necessary for upgrading the performance of current lower repetition rate accelerator-based instruments such as X-ray free electron lasers (FELs), and ultra-fast electron diffraction (UED) and microscopy (UEM). The APEX2 (Advanced Photo-injector Experiment 2) electron gun is a proposed upgrade for the current LCLS-II injector, which was based on the original APEX design. In contrast, APEX2 is designed as a two-cell cavity operating at 162.5 MHz with a launching field at the cathode equal to 34 MV/m, producing a beam energy of 1.5 to 2 MeV, more than double APEX. Operation of the gun in this condition will require upwards of 200 kW of RF power, thus proper thermal management is crucial to achieve target performance. This paper describes the current design, thermal performance and tuning methods.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB084  
About • paper received ※ 13 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 18 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPRB094 Measurements of the Electrical Axes of the CeC PoP RF Cavities cavity, cathode, SRF, electron 3031
 
  • I. Petrushina
    SUNY SB, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • Y.C. Jing, V. Litvinenko, J. Ma, I. Pinayev, K. Shih, G. Wang
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  • V. Litvinenko
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • K. Shih
    SBU, Stony Brook, New York, USA
 
  It is common knowledge that every mode in an SRF cavity has a so-called electrical axis, and only in an ideal cavity would this axis align exactly with the geometrical axis of the device. The misalignment of the electrical axis creates an additional undesirable transverse kick to the beam, which has to be corrected to achieve the designed beam parameters. In this paper we present the two methods which have been used in order to determine the electrical axes in the RF cavities of the Coherent electron Cooling (CeC) Proof of Principle (PoP) accelerator. The electron accelerator for the CeC PoP consists of the three main RF components: the 113 MHz SRF gun, the two normal-conducting 500 MHz bunching cavities, and the 704 MHz SRF 5-cell elliptical cavity. We discuss, in detail, the specifics of the measurement for each cavity and provide the corresponding results. In addition, we describe the influence of the field asymmetry in the 500 MHz bunchers on the beam dynamics, which was observed experimentally and confirmed by simulations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPRB094  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 20 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPTS007 Short Bunch Experiment at EXALT Facility laser, cathode, experiment, electron 3100
 
  • C. Bruni, J-N. Cayla, S. Chancé, V. Chaumat, N. Delerue, N. ElKamchi, P. Lepercq, H. Purwar
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • E. Baynard, M. Pittman
    CLUPS, Orsay, France
  • B. Lucas, O. Neveu
    CNRS LPGP Univ Paris Sud, Orsay, France
  • T. Vinatier
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
 
  Nowdays, different applications required short bunches, with low energy spread and low emittances. On EXALT facility, we perform an experiment with a short (few100 femtosecond) laser pulse on a photocathode in a 3 GHz RF gun. We perform the measurement of the single photon emission process with a copper cathode. We show that the longitudinal photoinjector model via transfer matrix is suitable for the reconstruction of the bunch duration even in short pulse mode with an increased accurracy charge below 20 pC. We clearly measure the parabolic profile in the energy spectrum resulting from blow out phenomena at the cathode due to strong space charge forces. Measurements are also compared with the Astra simulations.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPTS007  
About • paper received ※ 21 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPTS048 Electron Beam Dynamics Simulation for Electron Lenses electron, simulation, cathode, experiment 3220
 
  • S. Sadovich, A. Rossi
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • G. Stancari
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  A test stand is under construction at CERN to study high perveance electron guns, electron beam dynamics, and electron beam diagnostics for electron lenses. It will be used to test electron guns for the Hollow Electron Lenses under consideration for beam halo control for High Luminosity LHC (CERN), and for the Space Charge Compensation at SIS18 (GSI) in the frame of the EU funded ARIES project. In order to prepare for this test stand, simulations will be presented and compared with experiments undertaken at the Fermilab (FNAL) electron lens test stand. These were conducted using a hollow electron gun, with the magnetic field configuration and beam current varied to study their effect. The impact of imperfections on the beam dynamics and overall quality of the electron beam will be discussed. A method for comparing experimental data with simulation is also presented to allow bench-marking of the computer models and simulation tools that will later be applied to the analysis of measurements performed at CERN.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPTS048  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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WEPTS088 Integration of Cavity Design and Beam Dynamics Simulation Using the Parallel IMPACT and the ACE3P Codes cavity, simulation, emittance, electron 3317
 
  • J. Qiang, D. A. Bizzozero
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  • L. Ge, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and DE-AC02-76SF00515,
The 3D parallel code suite IMPACT has been extensively used in the beam dynamics study of photoinjectors while the 3D parallel code ACE3P has been extensively used in the RF cavity design. In this paper, we propose integrating the ACE3P cavity design and the IMPACT beam dynamics simulation into a single work flow. Such a workflow enables efficient simulation of 3D effects(e.g. RF coupler) on high performance computers.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-WEPTS088  
About • paper received ※ 07 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPMP002 Optics Design and Beam Dynamics Simulation for a VHEE Radiobiology Beam Line at PRAE Accelerator linac, radiation, electron, optics 3444
 
  • A. Faus-Golfe, B. Bai, Y. Han, C. Vallerand
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • R. Delorme, Y. Prezado
    IMNC, Orsay, France
  • M. Dosanjh
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  • P. Duchesne
    IPN, Orsay, France
  • V. Favaudon, C. Fouillade, P.M. Poortmans, F. Pouzoulet
    Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie d’Orsay, Orsay, France
 
  The Platform for Research and Applications with Electrons (PRAE) is a multidisciplinary R&D facility gathering subatomic physics, instrumentation, radiobiology and clinical research around a high-performance electron accelerator with beam energies up to 70 MeV. In this paper we report the complete optics design and performance evaluation of a Very High Energy Electron (VHEE) innovative radiobiology study, in particular by using Grid mini-beam and FLASH methodologies, which could represent a major breakthrough in Radiation Therapy (RT) treatment modality.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPMP002  
About • paper received ※ 27 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPMP003 The PRORAD Beam Line Design for PRAE electron, alignment, linac, dipole 3448
 
  • A. Faus-Golfe, B. Bai, Y. Han, C. Vallerand
    LAL, Orsay, France
  • P. Duchesne, E. J-M. Voutier
    IPN, Orsay, France
  • D. Marchand
    LPSC, Grenoble Cedex, France
 
  The PRAE (Platform for Research and Applications with Electrons) accelerator is being built at Orsay campus with the main objective of creating a multidisciplinary R&D platform, involving subatomic physics, instrumentation, radiobiology and clinical research around a high-performance electron accelerator with beam energies up to 70 MeV (planned 140 MeV). In this paper we will report the optics design and beam dynamics simulations for the beam line dedicated to subatomic physics, more specifically for the measurement of the proton radius. This measurement requires extremely low energy spread (5×10−4) and small beam sizes with low divergence at three beam energies: 30, 50 and 70 MeV. The beam line includes a D-type chicane coupled to a dechirping passive structure, which generates inductive wakefields in order to get the performances required for such measurement.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPMP003  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPMP016 Design of the Condenser System and Imaging System for a UEM electron, experiment, cathode, cavity 3485
 
  • T. Chen, W. Li, Y.J. Pei
    USTC/NSRL, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China
 
  The ultrafast electron microscope provides a useful tool for exploring fine structure and observing dynamic process at nanometer and picosecond scale, which has been extensively applied in chemistry and biological field. After emitting from the electron gun, electron beams are focused on the stage sample by the condenser system and then be projected by the imaging system on the screen. In the present study, a two-lens condenser system is simulated by Parmela and a three-lens imaging system is designed using thin-lens approximation. Besides, the shape factor of metallic spheres which have different radius for perturbation method is measured, which is conductive to measuring the Z/Q parameter and the electric field along the axis of the C-band 3MeV photocathode gun for the UEM.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPMP016  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPMP039 How Robust Are Existing Medical Linacs in Challenging Environments? A Study of Down Time and Failure Causes. linac, controls, electron, vacuum 3530
 
  • S.L. Sheehy, L. Wroe
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • A.J. Egerton
    Egerton Consulting Ltd, Minety, Malmesbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
  • A. Steinberg
    Oxford University, Physics Department, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom
 
  There is a severe lack of radiotherapy linear accelerators (LINACs) in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMICs), limiting capacity for cancer care in these regions. Anecdotally, operating high tech accelerators in environments with power fluctuations, harsh climatic conditions and geographic isolation leads to large failure rates and downtime. To guide future developments, this study presents a data-driven approach to collect statistical data on LINAC downtime and failure modes, comparing to a simple availability model.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPMP039  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPGW037 Hybrid Yb/Nd Laser System for RF Gun in SuperKEKB Phase II and Phase III Commissioning laser, electron, MMI, injection 3663
 
  • R. Zhang, Y. Honda, M. Yoshida, X. Zhou
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H.K. Kumano, N. Toyotomi
    Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd, Tsukuba, Japan
 
  SuperEKKB phase II commissioning has been finished in the summer of 2018. By use of Ytterbium doped fiber and Nd:YAG hybrid laser system, 2.3 nC electron beam with low emittance has been achieved at the end of linac, which is generated by RF gun. The electron beam is injected and stored in High Energy Ring successfully. Basing on these operation experiences, the Nd:YAG laser system will be used for the early stages of SuperKEKB phase III commissioning. After the update of laser system during 2018 summer maintenance, about 5.3 nC electron charge is generated by RF gun. Beside this, the laser spatial and temporal reshaping experiment has been being done in order to realize the electron beam with low emittance and low energy spread. Meanwhile, a perspective towards the next step Yb:YAG laser system is also introduced in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPGW037  
About • paper received ※ 13 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPGW043 Conceptual design of a MeV Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Based on 1.4 Cell RF Gun electron, cathode, emittance, laser 3679
 
  • J.J. Li, H.M. Chen, K. Fan, Y. Song, P. Yang, Y.T. Yang
    HUST, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
 
  Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) is a powerful tool to investigate the dynamic structure with temporal scale of 100 femtoseconds and spatial scale of atomic length. To achieve high quality diffraction patterns, the transverse emittance and the longitudinal length of electron bunches should be reduced. MeV UED, using photocath-ode RF gun instead of traditional DC gun, is being developed to produce high quality electron bunches with lower emittance and shorter length. We are developing a MeV UED facility based on a 1.4 cell photocathode RF gun that can provide higher acceleration gradient at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. In this paper, the conceptual design of the MeV UED is pro-posed with typical parameters of the system, as well as the ASTRA simulation results of optimization.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPGW043  
About • paper received ※ 11 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPRB044 LLRF Control System for RF GUN at SXFEL Test Facility controls, LLRF, FEL, FPGA 3912
 
  • L. Li, Q. Gu, Y.J. Liu, C.C. Xiao, J.Q. Zhang
    SINAP, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  • Y.F. Liu, Z. Wang
    SARI-CAS, Pudong, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
 
  A Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser Test Facility (SXFEL-TF) based on normal conducting linear accelerator was constructed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) campus by a joint team of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics and Tsinghua University. It consists of multiple Radio Frequency (RF) stations with standing wave cavity (RF Gun) and traveling wave accelerating structures working at different frequencies. Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system is used to measure the RF field in the cavities or structures and correct the fluctuation in RF fields with pulse-to-pulse feedback controllers. This paper describes the hardware and architecture of the LLRF system for electromagnetic filed stabilization inside the radio frequency electron gun, in the SXFEL-TF. A complete control path has be presented, including RF front-end board, I/Q detector and feedback controller. Algorithms used to stabilize the RF field have been presented as well as the software environment used to provide remote access to the control device. Finally, the performance of the LLRF system that was realized in the beam commissioning is presented and meets the high accuracy requirements.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPRB044  
About • paper received ※ 23 April 2019       paper accepted ※ 21 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPRB097 Analysis of RF System Stability on CLARA klystron, linac, controls, cavity 4053
 
  • N.Y. Joshi, J.K. Jones, A.J. Moss, E.W. Snedden, A.E. Wheelhouse
    STFC/DL/ASTeC, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
  • A.C. Dexter, J. Henderson
    Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
  • J.K. Jones
    Cockcroft Institute, Warrington, Cheshire, United Kingdom
 
  The Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications (CLARA) facility at STFC Daresbury Laboratory will test underpinning concepts and technology for a next generation X-ray free electron laser (FEL). CLARA will use four S-band normal conducting traveling wave linacs to accelerate electron bunches to a maximum energy of 250 MeV. The amplitude and phase stability of the collected RF systems is critical in enabling CLARA to achieve low (10 fs) shot-to-shot timing jitter of the photon output. Here we present initial measurements and model of the amplitude and phase jitter of the CLARA RF systems, achieved by experimentally correlating the klystron output with controls from modulator, driver, and other environment parameters. The effect of the RF jitter on the CLARA beam momentum is also integrated in the model.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPRB097  
About • paper received ※ 10 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPTS026 Effect of Nitric Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment on Brazing of Alumina Ceramics and Pure Titanium vacuum, electron, controls, experiment 4161
 
  • M. Kinsho, J. Kamiya
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • K. Abe
    Hitachi Power Semiconductor Device, Ltd., Hitachishi, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Nakamura
    Asahi Kinzoku Co., Ltd., Gifu, Japan
 
  Alumina ceramics vacuum chamber which is used for the 3GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS) in J-PARC is composed of alumina duct, titanium (Ti) flanges and Ti sleeves. Before brazing the alumina duct and the Ti sleeves, the Ti sleeves were treated with nitric hydrofluoric acid. The purpose of this study is to clear the effect of this treatment for titanium material. It was cleared by SEM observation that the roughness of the titanium material after the nitric hydrofluoric acid treatment becomes big. It was also measured that the thickness of oxide film on surface of the titanium material was 12.7 nm before treatment and 6.0 nm after treatment. As a result of measuring the wettability of the brazing material which was silver brazing filler metal (Ag: 72%, Cu: 28%) on the Ti surface and the diffusion of the Ti material into the brazing material, it became clear that both the clearing of oxide layer on the alumina ceramics and the vacuum condition of the vacuum heating furnace were important for brazing between alumina ceramics and pure titanium.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPTS026  
About • paper received ※ 14 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPTS052 Beam Loss Suppression by Beam Matching in Klystron klystron, simulation, beam-losses, injection 4218
 
  • S.J. Park, Y.J. Park
    PAL, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
  • S.C. Cha, D.H. Kim, D.H. Yu
    VITZRONEXTECH, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
  • J.H. Hwang
    POSTECH, Pohang, Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: The work was supported by the National R&D Program (grant number: 2016R1A6B2A01016828) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT in Korea.
High power klystrons usually employ large cathodes to generate high currents which are compressed inside the gun to provide optimum beam sizes at the cavity section. We compress the beam by using electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing fields which are established by gun electrodes and external magnets respectively. The geometry of the gun elecrodes and the external magnet is carefully designed to meet the matching condition which results in scalloping-free beam. We have established a systematic design procedures to achieve the beam matching condition at arbitrary beam sizes. In this article we report on the beam-matching design and simulation results with an example case of the 80-MW S-band klystron in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPTS052  
About • paper received ※ 15 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 23 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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THPTS064 Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Streak Camera using High-Gradient RF Cavities electron, cathode, photon, simulation 4256
 
  • F. Toufexis, V.A. Dolgashev
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: This project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
We are developing an ultrafast diagnostic system for X-ray beams from Synchrotron Light Sources and Free-Electron Lasers. In this system, the X-ray beam is focused on the photocathode of a high-gradient radio-frequency cavity that accelerates the photo-emitted electrons to a few MeV while preserving their time structure. The accelerated electron beam is streaked by radio-frequency deflectors and then imaged on a screen. This approach will allow orders of magnitude improvement in time resolution over traditional streak cameras and could potentially enable time-resolved diagnostics of sub-100 fs X-ray pulses. We present preliminary beam dynamics simulations of this system and discuss the implementation.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-IPAC2019-THPTS064  
About • paper received ※ 11 May 2019       paper accepted ※ 22 May 2019       issue date ※ 21 June 2019  
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